INSTRUMENTS OF BANGKO SENTRAL ACTION
ARTICLE III - REGULATIONS OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE OPERATIONS OF THE BANKS
SECTION 76. Foreign Exchange Holdings of the Banks. — In order that the Bangko Sentral may at all times have foreign exchange resources sufficient to enable it to maintain the international stability and convertibility of the peso, or in order to promote the domestic investment of bank resources, the Monetary Board may require the banks to sell to the Bangko Sentral or to other banks all or part of their surplus holdings of foreign exchange. Such transfers may be required for all foreign currencies or for only certain of such currencies, according to the decision of the Monetary Board. The transfers shall be made at the rates established under the provisions of Section 74 of this Act.
The Monetary Board may, whenever warranted, determine the net assets and net liabilities of banks and shall, in making such a determination, take into account the bank's networth, outstanding liabilities, actual and contingent, or such other financial or performance ratios as may be appropriate under the circumstances. Any such determination of net assets and net liabilities shall be applied in all banks uniformly and without discrimination.
SECTION 77. Requirement of Balanced Currency Position. — The Monetary Board may require the banks to maintain a balanced position between their assets and liabilities in Philippine pesos or in any other currency or currencies in which they operate. The banks shall be granted a reasonable period of time in which to adjust their currency positions to any such requirement.
The powers granted under this section shall be exercised only when special circumstances make such action necessary, in the opinion of the Monetary Board, and shall be applied to all banks alike and without discrimination.
SECTION 78. Regulation of Non-spot Exchange Transactions. — In order to restrain the banks from taking speculative positions with respect to future fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, the Monetary Board may issue such regulations governing bank purchases and sales of non-spot exchange as it may consider necessary for said purpose.
SECTION 79. Other Exchange Profits and Losses. — The banks shall bear the risks of non-compliance with the terms of the foreign exchange documents and instruments which they buy and sell, and shall also bear any other typically commercial or banking risks, including exchange risks not assumed by the Bangko Sentral under the provisions of the preceding section.
SECTION 80. Information on Exchange Operations. — The banks shall report to the Bangko Sentral the volume and composition of their purchases and sales of gold and foreign exchange each day, and must furnish such additional information as the Bangko Sentral may request with reference to the movements in their accounts in foreign currencies.
The Monetary Board may also require other persons and entities to report to it currently all transactions or operations in gold, in any shape or form, and in foreign exchange whether entered into or undertaken by them directly or through agents, or to submit such data as may be required on operations or activities giving rise to or in connection with or relating to a gold or foreign exchange transaction. The Monetary Board shall prescribe the forms on which such declarations must be made. The accuracy of the declarations may be verified by the Bangko Sentral by whatever inspection it may deem necessary.