INSTRUMENTS OF BANGKO SENTRAL ACTION
ARTICLE IV - LOANS TO BANKING AND OTHER FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
A. CREDIT POLICY
SECTION 81. Guiding Principles. — The rediscounts, discounts, loans and advances which the Bangko Sentral is authorized to extend to banking institutions under the provisions of the present article of this Act shall be used to influence the volume of credit consistent with the objective of price stability.
B. NORMAL CREDIT OPERATIONS
SECTION 82. Authorized Types of Operations. — Subject to the principle stated in the preceding section of this Act, the Bangko Sentral may normally and regularly carry on the following credit operations with banking institutions operating in the Philippines:
(a) Commercial credits. — The Bangko Sentral may rediscount, discount, buy and sell bills, acceptances, promissory notes and other credit instruments with maturities of not more than one hundred eighty (180) days from the date of their rediscount, discount or acquisition by the Bangko Sentral and resulting from transactions related to:
(1) the importation, exportation, purchase or sale of readily saleable goods and products, or their transportation within the Philippines; or
(2) the storing of non-perishable goods and products which are duly insured and deposited, under conditions assuring their preservation, in authorized bonded warehouses or in other places approved by the Monetary Board.
(b) Production credits. — The Bangko Sentral may rediscount, discount, buy and sell bills, acceptances, promissory notes and other credit instruments having maturities of not more than three hundred sixty (360) days from the date of their rediscount, discount or acquisition by the Bangko Sentral and resulting from transactions related to the production or processing of agricultural, animal, mineral, or industrial products. Documents or instruments acquired in accordance with this subsection shall be secured by a pledge of the respective crops or products: Provided, however, That the crops or products need not be pledged to secure the documents if the original loan granted by the Bangko Sentral is secured by a lien or mortgage on real estate property seventy percent (70%) of the appraised value of which equals or exceeds the amount of the loan granted.
(c) Other credits. — Special credit instruments not otherwise rediscountable under the immediately preceding subsections (a) and (b) may be eligible for rediscounting in accordance with rules and regulations which the Bangko Sentral shall prescribe. Whenever necessary, the Bangko Sentral shall provide funds from non-inflationary sources: Provided, however, That the Monetary Board shall prescribe additional safeguards for disbursing these funds.
(d) Advances. — The Bangko Sentral may grant advances against the following kinds of collaterals for fixed periods which, with the exception of advances against collateral named in clause (4) of the present subsection, shall not exceed one hundred eighty (180) days:
(1) gold coins or bullion;
(2) securities representing obligations of the Bangko Sentral or of other domestic institutions of recognized solvency;
(3) the credit instruments to which reference is made in subsection (a) of this section;
(4) the credit instruments to which reference is made in subsection (b) of this section, for periods which shall not exceed three hundred sixty (360) days;
(5) utilized portions of advances in current amount covered by regular overdraft agreements related to operations included under subsections (a) and (b) of this section, and certified as to amount and liquidity by the institution soliciting the advance;
(6) negotiable treasury bills, certificates of indebtedness, notes and other negotiable obligations of the Government maturing within three (3) years from the date of the advance; and
(7) negotiable bonds issued by the Government of the Philippines, by Philippine provincial, city or municipal governments, or by any Philippine Government instrumentality, and having maturities of not more than ten (10) years from the date of advance.
The rediscounts, discounts, loans and advances made in accordance with the provisions of this section may not be renewed or extended unless extraordinary circumstances fully justify such renewal or extension.
Advances made against the collateral named in clauses (6) and (7) of subsection (d) of this section may not exceed eighty percent (80%) of the current market value of the collateral.
C. SPECIAL CREDIT OPERATION
SECTION 83. Loans for Liquidity Purposes. — The Bangko Sentral may extend loans and advances to banking institutions for a period of not more than seven (7) days without any collateral for the purpose of providing liquidity to the banking system in times of need.
D. EMERGENCY CREDIT OPERATION
SECTION 84. Emergency Loans and Advances. — In periods of national and/or local emergency or of imminent financial panic which directly threaten monetary and banking stability, the Monetary Board may, by a vote of at least five (5) of its members, authorize the Bangko Sentral to grant extraordinary loans or advances to banking institutions secured by assets as defined hereunder: Provided, That while such loans or advances are outstanding, the debtor institution shall not, except upon prior authorization by the Monetary Board, expand the total volume of its loans or investments.
The Monetary Board may, at its discretion, likewise authorize the Bangko Sentral to grant emergency loans or advances to banking institutions, even during normal periods, for the purpose of assisting a bank in a precarious financial condition or under serious financial pressures brought by unforeseen events, or events which, though foreseeable, could not be prevented by the bank concerned: Provided, however, That the Monetary Board has ascertained that the bank is not insolvent and has the assets defined hereunder to secure the advances: Provided, further, That a concurrent vote of at least five (5) members of the Monetary Board is obtained.
The amount of any emergency loan or advance shall not exceed the sum of fifty percent (50%) of total deposits and deposit substitutes of the banking institution and shall be disbursed in two (2) or more tranches. The amount of the first tranche shall be limited to twenty-five percent (25%) of the total deposit and deposit substitutes of the institution and shall be secured by government securities to the extent of their applicable loan values and other unencumbered first class collaterals which the Monetary Board may approve: Provided, That if as determined by the Monetary Board, the circumstances surrounding the emergency warrant a loan or advance greater than the amount provided hereinabove, the amount of the first tranche may exceed twenty-five percent (25%) of the bank's total deposit and deposit substitutes if the same is adequately secured by applicable loan values of government securities and unencumbered first class collaterals approved by the Monetary Board, and the principal stockholders of the institution furnish an acceptable undertaking to indemnify and hold harmless from suit a conservator whose appointment the Monetary Board may find necessary at any time.
Prior to the release of the first tranche, the banking institution shall submit to the Bangko Sentral a resolution of its board of directors authorizing the Bangko Sentral to evaluate other assets of the banking institution certified by its external auditor to be good and available for collateral purposes should the release of the subsequent tranche be thereafter applied for.
The Monetary Board may, by a vote of at least five (5) of its members, authorize the release of a subsequent tranche on condition that the principal stockholders of the institution:
(a) furnish an acceptable undertaking to indemnify and hold harmless from suit a conservator whose appointment the Monetary Board may find necessary at any time; and
(b) provide acceptable security which, in the judgment of the Monetary Board, would be adequate to supplement, where necessary, the assets tendered by the banking institution to collateralize the subsequent tranche.
In connection with the exercise of these powers, the prohibitions in Section 128 of this Act shall not apply insofar as it refers to acceptance as collateral of shares and their acquisition as a result of foreclosure proceedings, including the exercise of voting rights pertaining to said shares: Provided, however, That should the Bangko Sentral acquire any of the shares it has accepted as collateral as a result of foreclosure proceedings, the Bangko Sentral shall dispose of said shares by public bidding within one (1) year from the date of consolidation of title by the Bangko Sentral.
Whenever a financial institution incurs an overdraft in its account with the Bangko Sentral, the same shall be eliminated within the period prescribed in Section 102 of this Act.
E. CREDIT TERMS
SECTION 85. Interest and Rediscount. — The Bangko Sentral shall collect interest and other appropriate charges on all loans and advances it extends, the closure, receivership or liquidations of the debtor-institution notwithstanding. This provision shall apply prospectively.
The Monetary Board shall fix the interest and rediscount rates to be charged by the Bangko Sentral on its credit operations in accordance with the character and term of the operation, but after due consideration has been given to the credit needs of the market, the composition of the Bangko Sentral's portfolio, and the general requirements of the national monetary policy. Interest and rediscount rates shall be applied to all banks of the same category uniformly and without discrimination.
SECTION 86. Endorsement. — The documents rediscounted, discounted, bought or accepted as collateral by the Bangko Sentral in the course of the credit operations authorized in this article shall bear the endorsement of the institution from which they are received.
SECTION 87. Repayment of Credits. — Documents rediscounted, discounted or accepted as collateral by the Bangko Sentral must be withdrawn by the borrowing institution on the dates of their maturities, or upon liquidation of the obligations which they represent or to which they relate whenever said obligations have been liquidated prior to their dates of maturity.
Banks shall have the right at any time to withdraw any documents which they have presented to the Bangko Sentral as collateral, upon payment in full of the corresponding debt to the Bangko Sentral, including interest charges.
SECTION 88. Other requirements. — The Monetary Board may prescribe, within the general powers granted to it under this Act, additional conditions which borrowing institutions must satisfy in order to have access to the credit of the Bangko Sentral. These conditions may refer to the rates of interest charged by the banks, to the purposes for which their loans in general are destined, and to any other clearly definable aspect of the credit policy of the bank.
SECTION 89. Provisional Advances to the National Government. — The Bangko Sentral may make direct provisional advances with or without interest to the National Government to finance expenditures authorized in its annual appropriation: Provided, That said advances shall be repaid before the end of three (3) months extendible by another three (3) months as the Monetary Board may allow following the date the National Government received such provisional advances and shall not, in their aggregate, exceed twenty percent (20%) of the average annual income of the borrower for the last three (3) preceding fiscal years.